Graphene oxide in vaccines, blood anomalies, lipid nanoparticles: the analysis of Jean-Marc Sabatier

Publié le 30 septembre 2022 - 12:10
Jean-Marc Sabatier's Latest Discoveries
Jean-Marc Sabatier, Research Director at the CNRS (Centre National de recherche Scientifique), PhD in cell biology and microbiology, affiliated with the Institute of Neurophysiopathology at the University of Aix-Marseille.

INTERVIEW - What do we know about the blood clotting disorders that can occur in Covid-19 infected persons, but also in a non-infected person, after one or more vaccine injections? What explains the rolling formation of red blood cells in blood samples observed under the microscope, especially in vaccinated persons? What would be the consequences of the presence of graphene oxide if the presence of this material in mRNA vaccines were to be confirmed? Can vaccine injections cause lasting changes in the blood composition of vaccines? What is the role of lipid nanoparticles (LNPs)? What do we know about the deleterious effects associated with the use of LPNs in mRNA vaccines? Are the deleterious effects of LPNs observed in mice likely to apply to humans? What about the adjuvants in Novavax? What is the benefit-risk balance of the new "bivalent" Covid-19 vaccines, validated by the authorities without any clinical trial?

These are the main themes addressed by Jean-Marc Sabatier, Research Director at the CNRS (Centre National de Recherche Scientifique), PhD in cell biology and microbiology, affiliated with the Institute of Neurophysiopathology at the University of Aix-Marseille.

The views expressed here by Dr. Sabatier are his own and do not represent the institution.


France Soir - According to a study published in the British Medical Journal (BMJ), SARS-CoV-2 may increase the risk of developing serious blood clots for up to six months after infection. This turns into venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and bleeding in people who have contracted Covid.

This was a problem you identified at the outbreak's onset in March 2020. A month later, you published a study in which you had anticipated certain diseases including coagulopathies and thromboses (which are normally "opposite" because one corresponds to a coagulation deficiency, unlike the second which corresponds to a hyper-coagulation!). Since the beginning of the vaccination campaign, among the many side effects reported, thrombotic events have also been reported and recorded by the drug safety authorities following vaccination.

What do you think are the causes of these blood clots?

Jean-Marc Sabatier - Indeed, an infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus leads to blood coagulation abnormalities in about 15% of infected people. These blood clotting problems can also occur in non-infected people (with SARS-CoV-2), after one or more vaccine injections. Approximately 70-80% of people with severe forms of Covid-19 have bleeding disorders. We anticipated these coagulation abnormalities when we identified (as early as March 2020) the mode of action of SARS-CoV-2 in the body, which is a dysfunction of the host renin-angiotensin system (RAS) induced by the viral Spike protein, and an overactivation of its "deleterious" human AT1R receptor. As a reminder, the RAS is a major hormonal and physiological system in our body, which controls renal, pulmonary, cardiovascular autonomic functions, as well as innate immunity, and various microbiota (including the gut microbiota). The RAS is ubiquitous and is found in various organs and tissues of our body.

When SARS-CoV-2 (via the viral Spike protein), or the vaccine Spike protein, causes the RAS to malfunction by over activating the AT1R receptor, it induces (among other things) a macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) and/or a mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS). MAS is responsible for hemophagocytosis, which is the attack and partial destruction - by activated macrophages - of red blood cells (RBCs), certain cells of the immune system (B and T lymphocytes, NK cells), and thrombocytes/blood platelets (it is noteworthy that the precursors of these various blood cell types are also attacked).

This undesirable process of hemophagocytosis potentially leads to anaemia (red blood cell deficiency), lymphocytopenia (lymphocyte deficiency) and thrombocytopenia (thrombocyte/blood platelet deficiency). This is accompanied by a drop in the production of type I interferons. In thrombocytopenia, the decrease in the number of thrombocytes/blood platelets involved in the (very complex) coagulation process leads to a coagulation deficiency (or coagulopathy). This is what is seen with menstrual disorders in some women following SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccine injections. Coagulopathy may in some cases be associated with the presence of autoimmune antibodies to one or more coagulation factors, as in the case of acquired haemophilia (following Covid-19) with the presence of antibodies to coagulation factor VIII. Such autoimmune disorders are also due to dysfunction of the RAS which controls innate immunity, and thus the recognition of "self" and "non-self" molecules by the immune system.

At the same time, during MAS, the "activated" macrophages produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, and allow both the recruitment of thrombocytes/blood platelets and the proliferation of neutrophilic granulocytes (neutrophilia phenomenon); the latter are thought to be involved in the mobilization of platelets to the site of the thrombus. MAS may therefore be associated with a potential hyper-coagulation state characterized mainly by a significant increase in D-dimers (whose level is generally less than 250 ng/mL of blood - appear in the bloodstream when clots dissolve following fibrin degradation) and a significant risk of death from deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, etc. in the absence of therapeutic intervention (anti-thrombotic, aspirin intake). It should be noted that the "normal" blood level of D-dimer may vary depending on the individuals considered (pregnant women, elderly people, individuals with inflammatory pathology or liver disease, people who have undergone recent surgery or who have haematomas, etc.).

In conclusion, Covid-19-associated blood coagulation abnormalities (resulting from SARS-CoV-2 infection or Covid-19 vaccine injections) are - except in special cases - related to RAS dysfunction (via overactivation of its AT1R receptor induced by the binding of the viral or vaccine Spike protein to the cellular target receptor ACE2).

France Soir - Several documents have highlighted abnormalities in the blood of vaccinated people. These documents show blood samples that show "rolling" formations under the microscope. How credible are these images? How do you explain this phenomenon?

Jean-Marc Sabatier - These blood anomalies seem credible, even probable. The "rolls" that you describe correspond to superimpositions/stackings of red blood cells (also called erythrocytes). Such "roll" structures of red blood cells have been described before. Red blood cells (produced in the bone marrow by hematopoietic stem cells) are anucleate cells (in mammals) that are responsible - among other things - for transporting oxygen (oxygen or O2) from the lungs to other tissues and cells in our body. For this vital function, these blood cells contain haemoglobin capable of binding oxygen. It is notable that the role of red blood cells is not limited to oxygen transport: they regulate blood pH, transport immune complexes (thanks to a surface molecule called CD20) and CO2 produced by the cells.

Unexpectedly, red blood cells are also directly involved in our body's response against microbes. Indeed, red blood cells have a large amount of A-glycophorins on their surface (one million receptors per red blood cell), which serve as "decoys" for viral proteins (such as the SARS-CoV-2 or vaccine protein Spike). Thus, these blood cells act as "traps" to neutralize circulating pathogens (or to decrease their circulating load), via a direct interaction with their surface proteins. It appears then possible that the Spike protein produced or contained in the Covid-19 vaccines interacts with the red blood cells, modifying their properties and behaviour.

At the same time, we know that SARS-CoV-2 affects the transport and/or distribution of oxygen to the tissues and cells of our body (variation of oxygen saturation rate depending on the severity of Covid-19). Experimental studies suggest a potential interference between the Spike protein and the haemoglobin of red blood cells used for oxygen transport (haemoglobin consists of two alpha-globin and two beta-globin subunits, each of which is associated with a heme group that contains an iron atom capable of associating with oxygen).

SARS-CoV-2 - via the Spike protein - induces RAS dysfunction via overactivation of its "deleterious" receptor AT1R. The overactivated AT1R receptor (by the viral or vaccine Spike protein) is pro-hypertensive, pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant, pro-angiogenic, pro-thrombotic, pro-fibrosing, pro-hypertrophying and causes nitric oxide (NO) depletion. Overactivated AT1R causes hypoxemia (low oxygen levels in the blood) and hypoxia (a state of reduced oxygen availability in the tissues). Remember that overactivation of AT1R (of the RAS) is responsible for macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) and associated hemophagocytosis, which destroys red blood cells and their precursors in the bone marrow. All these data suggest a possible damage to the integrity of red blood cells that may respond to the "roll formation" already described and sometimes observed/reported in SARS-CoV-2 infected or vaccinated individuals.

Personally, I think that in the case of the effects observed after the Covid-19 injections, the vaccine Spike protein produced (mRNA and viral vector vaccines) or existing (inactivated virus and recombinant Spike protein vaccines) would lead to the formation of red blood cells "rolls" by adsorbing on the surface of these cells - via glycophorins (glycophorin- A) - thus modifying the surface electric charge and the membrane Zeta potential (this Zeta potential - corresponding to the difference between the electric charges located on the surface of the red blood cells and those of the external cloud - normally makes it possible to repel these cells preventing them from aggregating). Glycophorins are therefore molecules on the surface of red blood cells which serve as "decoys" for microbes which attach themselves to them (via the numerous negative charges of the sialic acids carried by the glycophorins) and which cannot multiply there, because they are "empty" blood cells without a nucleus and the cellular material necessary for the multiplication of microbes. Red blood cells therefore play a central role in the transport of oxygen to the cells, but also in supporting the immune system by participating in the clearance of microbes. Such "roll" structures of red blood cells have been described in inflammatory states (here an inflammatory state resulting from SARS-CoV-2 infection), possibly in pregnancy (due to increased fibrinogen), as well as in dysglobulinemia (appearance and proliferation of "abnormal" blood and tissue antibodies) in the host. It is notable that this piling up of blood cells can sometimes be simply related to solvents used in injectable drugs (such as miconazole, cyclosporine or castor oil). Red blood cells can also be clustered, especially in the presence of antibodies that provide inter-cellular bridging.

France Soir - There has been a lot of talk about metallic particles, especially graphene oxide. Do you think this is a serious possibility?

Jean-Marc Sabatier - Graphene and its derivatives, including graphene oxide, are not described (by the manufacturers and the WHO) as being constituents of the vaccines currently used against SARS-CoV-2 and Covid-19. The presence of such nanomaterials is nevertheless mentioned by many authors and experimenters. It would be very serious if the presence of such compounds were real for reasons of health transparency and vaccine safety (although it is not appropriate to talk about vaccine safety in the context of Covid-19 pseudo-vaccines).

Graphene is made of carbon (it is a single layer of carbon atoms organized in a honeycomb pattern). Together with its derivatives, graphene has exceptional potential and physicochemical properties in terms of lightness, transparency, flexibility, resistance (resistance to breakage 100 times greater than that of steel), stability, electrical conduction, magnetism (only under non-natural conditions), potential source of energy (thanks to vibratory movements), and clean energy storage (graphene battery). The fields of application of these materials are currently expanding as ultra-sensitive sensors/biosensors, biocatalysts, microchips and others, as well as in nanomedicine (mainly as a vector for gene therapy and vaccine platform).

Is it being used experimentally as a vaccine platform in the mRNA Covid-19 vaccines? We should know soon, especially because the courts in several countries have been asked to conduct an in-depth study of the composition of these vaccines. As far as I am concerned, I have no certainty about the presence or not of graphene or graphene oxide (or other related derivatives) in mRNA vaccines, but I am not the most knowledgeable person in the field... and there is rarely smoke without fire. The major problems posed by the presence of carbonaceous nanomaterials of the graphene or derivative type would potentially be a "deleterious" inflammatory reaction with oxidative stress, cell death (by apoptosis, necrosis and/or autophagic dysregulation), a direct toxicity on organs (in particular the lungs and the brain), a genotoxicity (alteration of the DNA which is a source of cancers and/or deficiencies transmissible to the following generations), as well as the biodegradability (catabolism) and its consequences on the organism. It is notable that to date, undesirable effects of these nanomaterials (e.g. graphene oxide) have already been reported on certain cell types (including nerve and lung epithelial cells), and on living organisms including plants (via carbon nanotube-enriched soil). It appears that the human enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) produced by white blood cells (neutrophilic granulocytes belonging to innate immunity) would be able to degrade graphene oxide; these immune cells - in charge of eliminating microbes and foreign bodies in the body - are strongly represented in the lungs. Finally, graphene nanoparticles (and its derivatives) appear all the more toxic as their size is important. In the case of an effective presence of graphene oxide, or other related compound in mRNA vaccines (which remains to be formally demonstrated to my knowledge), a rapid elimination by a mechanism of phagocytosis of specialized immune cells is likely.

France Soir - Do you think that these vaccines can cause lasting changes in the blood composition of those vaccinated?

Jean-Marc Sabatier - Personally, I think that these vaccine injections cause more or less lasting changes in the blood composition of "vaccinated" individuals. The dysfunction of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the associated overactivation of the AT1R receptor are potentially induced by the vaccine Spike protein, hence the "deleterious" effects sometimes observed after vaccine injections. This RAS dysfunction leads - among other things - to a macrophagic activation syndrome (MAS) responsible for the phenomenon of hemophagocytosis. Hemophagocytosis leads to anaemia (decrease in the number of red blood cells), lymphocytopenia (decrease in white blood cell count, including auxiliary and cytotoxic T cells, Natural Killer T cells, and B cells), and thrombocytopenia (decrease in the number of thrombocytes/blood platelets). The "hyper-reactive" macrophages also attack the myeloid and lymphoid precursors of these blood cells in the bone marrow. In contrast, neutrophilia, which is a proliferation of neutrophil granulocytes involved in innate immunity, is observed. These events affect the composition of the blood. The effects of vaccine injections should be more or less "visible" and long-lasting depending on the number of vaccine injections received and the individual (age, gender, health status, genetics, etc.). In my opinion, the real problem linked to the multiple injections of these pseudo-vaccines will be the altered functional potential of the host's blood. Indeed, these repeated vaccine injections will inevitably lead to a deficiency of the innate immune system (immediate non-specific immunity) and, consequently, to a deficiency of the adaptive/acquired immune system (later immunity of about 4 days and specific to the infectious agent, or other), i.e. to a generalized deficiency of the immune system. Thus, it seems to me urgent and vital to stop these ineffective and deleterious injections because they will inexorably lead to a major disruption of the immune system in the "vaccinated" persons. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) could be a lasting modification of immunity in the "vaccinated" host, which could lead to the onset and/or development of various pathologies (cancers, autoimmune diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, etc.).

France Soir - The Spike protein has been widely blamed for the many side effects of vaccination. As you have already explained in previous interviews, the virus, by binding to the cellular receptor ACE2 (angiotensin converting enzyme 2) through its Spike protein, interferes with a complex and ubiquitous hormonal system, called the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Present in all tissues, organs (brain, heart, lungs, spleen, pancreas, vascular system, auditory system, eyes, skin, intestines, reproductive organs, etc.) and gut, mouth and vaginal microbiota, the RAS also drives innate immunity. By attacking the RAS, Sars-CoV-2 renders it dysfunctional, with possible repercussions on a wide range of organs and tissues. At the level of the RAS, the cellular receptor AT1R, which controls various signalling pathways within cells, is the receptor most involved in immune, inflammatory and memory phenomena. When overactivated, it becomes deleterious, as it has pro-hypertensive, pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant, pro-thrombotic, pro-hypoxic, pro-fibrosing, pro-hypertrophying and pro-angiogenic properties. This dysfunction also leads to pathologies that can also be induced by the vaccine Spike protein.

Recently, a pre-publication study on the bioRxiv website reported deleterious effects induced by lipid nanoparticles (NPLs) on the immune response in mice.

Can you first remind us of the role of NPLs, what they are made of, and how long they last in the body according to current scientific data?

Jean-Marc Sabatier - As a reminder, repeated vaccine injections are based on the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein (modified). In the case of the Comirnaty (Pfizer-BioNTech) and Spikevax (Moderna) vaccines, which are the most widely used in France, the vaccine Spike protein is produced directly by our cells following an injection of messenger RNA. There are several (scientific) reasons not to give multiple vaccine injections with Covid-19 pseudo-vaccines, as the benefit/risk ratio is very unfavourable:

(1) These pseudo-vaccines are ineffective: they do not prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission of the virus (a current protection against severe or fatal forms of Covid-19 remains to be proven);

(2) The detrimental action of the vaccine Spike protein on many organs and tissues, including the vascular system: the Spike protein can cause Covid-19 disease, as it can potentially bind to the ACE2 receptor of target cells and induce RAS dysfunction and overactivation of its deleterious AT1R receptor (through excess angiotensin-2), as does SARS-CoV-2;

(3) Repeated vaccine injections targeting the same antigen (in this case, the Spike protein) that dysregulates host innate immunity. This is in addition to the dysfunction of innate immunity induced by the dysfunction of the RAS which controls innate immunity;

(4) The existence in the host of the phenomena of facilitation of viral infection mediated by "facilitating" anti-Spike protein antibodies (ADE: Antibody-dependent enhancement) and facilitation of respiratory diseases (ERD: Enhanced respiratory diseases). ADE/ERD phenomena are observed with newly emerging variants and sub-variants of SARS-CoV-2;

(5) The potential direct toxicity of lipid nanoparticles (NPLs) and other adjuvants and excipients used in Covid-19 pseudo-vaccines.

France Soir - What are lipid nanoparticles?

Jean-Marc Sabatier - The nanoparticles of these vaccines contain four types of compounds, namely cationic ionizable lipids (the positive charges bind to the negative charges of the mRNA), pegylated lipids (which stabilize the nanoparticles), as well as phospholipids and cholesterol (which participate in the structure of the nanoparticles). The cationic ionizable lipids differ between mRNA vaccines: ALC-0315 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or SM-102 (Moderna). Pegylated lipids also differ: ALC-0159 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or PEG2000-DMG (Moderna). These vaccines share phospholipids (DSPC) and cholesterol. All of these compounds encapsulate the mRNA to protect it from degradative enzymes and allow its transport into cells to produce the vaccine Spike protein. In mRNA vaccines, NPLs could be highly toxic (ionizable and pegylated lipids), according to experimental data.

France Soir - What potentially deleterious effects can lipid nanoparticles in certain vaccines cause?

Jean-Marc Sabatier - The damage (more or less severe) caused by the vaccine Spike protein is nowadays well documented. There are additional risks of deleterious effects associated with the use of highly inflammatory NPLs in mRNA vaccines. Various types of NPLs are capable of crossing biological barriers and exerting toxic effects on organs such as the brain, kidney, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, muscle and reproductive organs. NPLs can cross the blood-testicular, placental and epithelial barriers to accumulate in the reproductive organs, damaging them by destroying Sertoli and Leydig cells as well as germ cells. This affects the male reproductive organs by altering sperm quality, quantity, morphology and motility, and the female reproductive organs by reducing the number of mature oocytes and disrupting follicular development. NPLs can disrupt hormone levels, affecting libido. The mechanisms involved in NPL toxicity are based on inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and/or genotoxicity. It is notable that NPLs can induce an allergic reaction in some people with severe allergies (approximately one case of anaphylactic shock per million injections of Pfizer-BioNTech's vaccine). Many of the deleterious effects of NPLs are (broadly) comparable to those induced by the vaccine Spike protein. In summary, NPLs are potentially dangerous.

France Soir - What about adjuvants, especially for the Novavax vaccine?

Jean-Marc Sabatier - Other vaccine adjuvants may also present a potential toxicity. For example, the Novavax vaccine - used in France - contains a saponin derivative extracted from Panama bark. The surfactant, detergent and emulsifying properties of saponins appear to be beneficial or toxic, and are the subject of controversy. Saponins may attack red blood cells (haemolytic activity) and other cell types by interacting with the cholesterol in the membranes of these cells. In high doses, saponins can cause respiratory problems, gastric and liver damage, as well as convulsions and diarrhoea.

France Soir - What are the deleterious effects of NPLs observed in mice?

Jean-Marc Sabatier - The work of Quin and colleagues (Thomas Jefferson University in the United States), which can be seen on the bioRxiv website for the pre-publication of scientific articles (not yet peer-reviewed), concerns the effects of NPLs alone or associated with mRNAs (mRNA-NPLs) in mice. This work shows that pre-exposure of mice to NPLs or mRNA-NPLs affects innate and adaptive immune responses. Pre-exposure to mRNA-NPL resulted in long-term inhibition of the animals' adaptive immune responses. On the other hand, after pre-exposure to mRNA-NPLs, the resistance of mice to heterologous microbial infections is altered. The authors detected widespread neutropenia (decrease in neutrophil granulocytes) in mice exposed to mRNA-NPL. Interestingly (and ominously), mice pre-exposed to mRNA-NPL were able to pass on the acquired immune traits to their offspring. Thus, the mRNA-NPL vaccine platform induced long-term immunological changes that may affect adaptive immune responses as well as heterologous protection against infections in mice, some of which may be inherited by the offspring. Thus, it appears that inflammatory NPLs activate and "deplete" the immune system as long as they remain in the body (20-30 days).

France Soir - Are these observed effects likely to apply to humans?

Jean-Marc Sabatier - The adverse effects observed in mice are likely to be found in other mammals, including humans. However, these are only preliminary experimental data on a specific animal model, which would deserve more in-depth studies. It is unfortunate - indeed, anomalous - that such studies are not yet available and publicly accessible, given the widespread use of NPLs in mRNA vaccines injected into humans.

France Soir - New vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 will be on the market by the fall. Manufactured by Pfizer/BioNTech for two of them, and by Moderna for the third, all target the Omicron variant and its sublineages. Two new vaccines, one from the biotech Moderna, the other from the pharmaceutical company Pfizer/BioNTech, both contain the RNA sequence of the Spike protein of the wild Wuhan strain to which the RNA sequence of the BA.1 variant has been added. The other vaccine manufactured by Pfizer/BioNTech also contains the Spike protein RNA sequence of the wild Wuhan strain, to which the researchers added the Spike protein RNA sequences of the new BA.4 and BA.5 sublineages.

What do you think about the idea of assembling two different Spike proteins when the multiple mutations observed in the Omicron variant and the ADE (Antibody Dependent Enhancement) phenomenon that can occur later when a person is infected with another viral serotype for which the ADE phenomenon of antibody facilitation exists, which will favour the infection, has been observed? Isn't this assembly antinomic?

Jean-Marc Sabatier - Our health authorities (European Medicines Agency, and the High Authority for Health) have just approved the vaccine injections with the new Covid-19 vaccines called "bivalent", as well as their coupling with the flu vaccine. It is noteworthy that these approvals by the authorities are not - to date - based on any clinical trial.

A real vaccine must meet two criteria: efficacy and safety. As far as efficacy is concerned, these new pseudo-vaccines will not be much more effective than their predecessors, even with the addition of one or two messenger RNA(s) encoding the modified Spike proteins of the Omicron variant (BA.1) and its sublineages BA.4, BA.5. It is clear that the new mRNA vaccines will not prevent either infection or transmission of SARS-CoV-2. These vaccines will not be without side effects, as the two or three messenger RNAs, injected simultaneously, are expected to produce Spike proteins that are still potentially capable of binding to the ACE2 receptor of target cells, resulting in RAS dysfunction and the potential triggering of Covid-19 diseases. The dangers associated with lipid nanoparticles are still present in these new vaccines. In short, these will provide nothing in terms of protection. These additional vaccine injections will only increase the risk of developing more severe forms of the disease via the ADE and ERD infection facilitation phenomena already described (in addition to the potential toxicity of lipid nanoparticles present in the vaccines). The benefit-risk balance remains clearly unfavourable with the new vaccines still based on the viral Spike protein. Ideally, from a health point of view, these pseudo-vaccine boosters should be stopped.




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